Muharram

9th and 10th Ashura
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “For fasting the day of ‘Ashura’, I hope that Allah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before.” (Muslim). This is from the bounty of Allah towards us: for fasting one day He gives us expiation for the sins of a whole year. And Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Ashura’. He said, ‘What is this?’ They said, ‘This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Musa fasted on this day.’ He said, ‘We have more right to Musa than you,’ so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day.” (Bukhari).

“This is a great day, on which Allah saved Musa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people.” (Muslim)

Safar

Abû Hurayrah relates that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak a good word or remain silent. And whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should show hospitality to his neighbor. And whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should show hospitality to his guest.” (Bukhârî and Muslim)

Rabiul Awwal

Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Do not disdain a good deed, (no matter how small it may seem) even if it is your meeting with your (Muslim) brother with a cheerful face.”[Muslim].

Rabiul Thaaniy

Adi bin Hatim (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Guard yourselves against the Fire (of Hell) even if it be only with half a date-fruit (given in charity); and if you cannot afford even that, you should at least say a good word.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Jumada Awwal

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Three are the signs of a hypocrite: When he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is trusted, he betrays his trust.”(Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Jumada Thanniy

On the authority of Abu Harayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) from the Prophet (peace be upon him), who said, Allah said: Spend (on charity), O son of Adam, and I shall spend on you. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Rajab

Qur’an: “Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred, (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islamic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein.” (Qur’an, 9:36)

Hadith: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The year is twelve months, of which four are sacred : the three consecutive months of Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumaada and Sha’baan.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Sha’baan

Our mother of believer Aisha (Allahs blessings be on her) said: “The Messenger(peace be upon him)used to fast until we thought that he would never break his fast, and he would not fast until we thought he would never fast. I never saw the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) fasting for an entire month except in Ramadhan, and I never saw him fast more than he did in Sha’baan.” (Al-Bukhari)

Ramadhan

Quran was revealed on this month
“The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month , he must observe Saum (fasts) that month”. (Qur’an, 2:185)

Laylat al Qadr- better than a thousand months
“Verily! We have sent it (this Quran) down in the night of Al-Qadr (Decree). And what will make you know what the night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is? The night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allah in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, (i.e. 83 years and 4 months). Therein descend the angels and the Ruh [Jibrael (Gabriel)] by Allah’s Permission with all Decrees, Peace! (All that night, there is Peace and Goodness from Allah to His believing slaves) until the appearance of dawn.”(Qur’an, 97:1-5)

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “Whoever fasts Ramadhan out of faith & in hope of reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.”(Al-Bukhari)
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), “Whoever spends the nights of Ramadhan in prayer out of faith & in the hope of reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.”(Al-Bukhari)

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “When Ramadhan comes, the gates of Paradise are opened & the gates of Hell are closed, & the devils are chained up.” (Al-Bukhari)

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “The five daily prayers , from one Jumu’ah to the next and from one Ramadhan to the next are expiation for (sins committe) in between, so long as you avoid major sins.”(Muslim)

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, ,”Umrah in Ramadhan is equivalent to Hajj.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “Umrah in Ramadhan is equivalent to doing Hajj with me.” (Muslim)

Aishah (may Allah be pleased be pleased with her) said that, “the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to spend the last ten days of Ramadhan in i’tikaaf until he passed away.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

It is narrated that , “Jibreel used to meet the Prophet (peace be upon him) every night in Ramadhan and study the Qur’an with him. (Al-Bukhair and Muslim)

Shawwal

Eid Al Fitr
Allah says in the Qur’an , “(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah, (ie. To say Takbir- Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Most Great) for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.” (Qur’an, 2:185)

Eating to recognize that it is Eid and the end of Ramadhan

Anas reported :”The Prophet (peace be upon him) would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast (Eid al Fitr) until he had eaten an odd number of dates.” (Al Bukhari)
It is mustahab to eat before going out to emphasize that fact that it is forbidden to fast on the day and to demonstrate that the fast (of Ramadhan)has ended.

The Eid prayer
Umm “Atiyah reported: “We were ordered to go out with the single & menstruating women to the two Eids in order to witness the good & the supplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women should be separate from the others.” (Al Bukhari & Muslim)

Going to the prayer by one route & returning by another
Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah: “On the day of Eid the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to return (after offering the Eid prayer ) through a way different from that by which he went.” (Al Bukhari)

Fasting Shawwal
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Whoever fasts Ramadhan then follows it with six days of Shawwal , it will be as if he fasted a lifetime.” (Muslim)

A women should complete her Ramadhan fasts first, then follow it with six days of Shawwal, so that the hadith with be applicable to her too, & she will gain the reward mentioned in it inshaAllah.

Dhul Qa’dah

Sacred month-Dhul-Qa’dah, Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram & Rajab

Qur’an: “Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred, (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islamic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein.” (Qur’an, 9:36)

Hadith: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The year is twelve months, of which four are sacred : the three consecutive months of Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumaada and Sha’baan.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Dhul Hijjah

1st -10th – Days of virtue & righteous deeds Allah swears upon this day & says, “By the dawn, by the ten nights (i.e. the first 10 days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah).” (Qur’an,89:1-2)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “There are no days on which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allah then these ten days, ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. They said, :”O Messenger of Allah, not even jihad for the sake of Allah?” He said, “Not even jihad for the sake of Allah, unless a man goes out himself with his wealth & does not come back home with anything.” (Al Bukhari)

How to benefit these beautiful days? Say: Tahleel (La ilah ila Allah), Takbir ( Allahu akbar) & Tahmid (Al hamdulilah) Men to say it loudly at the masajids home & street & women to say it quietly.

Performing Hajj & Umrah : One of the best deeds that one can do during these ten days is to perform Hajj to the Sacred House of Allah.

Other acts of worship: Whoever is not able to go to Haj should occupy himself with other acts of worship like prayers, reading Qur’an, fasting, dhikr, sincere repentance, duaa, charity, honoring his parents, upholding ties of kinship, enjoining good & forbidding evil.

Sacrifice: “When you see the new moon of Dhu’l-Hijja, if any one of you wants to offer a sacrifice, then he should stop cutting his hair and nails until he has offered his sacrifice.” (Muslim)

9th – Day of Arafaah :“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” (Qur’an, 5:3).

Fasting: “It expiates for the sins of the previous year and of the coming year.”( Muslim)

It is the day of forgiveness of sins, freedom from the Fire and pride in the people who are there: Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said that our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “There is no day on which Allah frees more people from the Fire than the Day of ‘Arafah. He comes close and expresses His pride to the angels, saying, ‘What do these people want?’” (Muslim)

10th – Eid al-Adha (Day of Sacrifice/ Yawn al Nahar) The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The greatest days in the scale of Allah are the Yawm an-Nahr and Al-Qarr”. (Hadith)

It is known as Yawm an-Nahr, since it marks the ending of the major rite of Hajj-Sacrifice.

Days of Tashreeq- 11th, 12th & 13th

Days of Tashreeq (fasting not allowed)

The days of Tashriq are the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijjah. There are several verses and ahadith which speak of their virtue.

“And remember Allah during the appointed Days”(Qur’an, 2:203) means reciting the Takbir (Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar) during the days of Tashreeq after the compulsory prayers (Ibn Kathir).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “The days of Arafa (9th), the day of Sacrifice (10th) and the days of Tashreeq (11th ,12th & 13th) are our Eid. These are days of eating and drinking.” (Hadith)

Allah knows best.

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